Liner conferences are among the oldest surviving cartels in the world. Created in the 1870s, they have existed on all the world's shipping routes. With the approval or tacit acquiescence of governments everywhere, they fix freight rates, control capacity, and share markets. The United Nations Code of Conduct for Liner Conferences (1974) granted them global recognition and prompted the EC to recommend Member States to join the Convention on the Liner Code (1979) and to grant them the most generous and extraordinary block exemption from EC antitrust rules ever (1986). The EC Commissions administration of the block exemption has clarified some of its aspects and, to a certain extent, limited its scope; but until very recently, it has not questioned the appropriateness of the exceptionally lenient treatment of liner shipping cartels in the EU. After a report by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Secretariat (2002) recommending abolition of antitrust immunity for shipping cartels in member countries, the European Commission launched a review of the block exemption (2003), which has not yet finished, and suggested that the authorization for liner conferences should either be repealed or severely limited. This book studies first the origins, the early history, and the regulation of liner conferences in the world and in the EC, focusing in particular on the regulation which granted a block exemption to liner conferences. Then, the book examines, one by one, the four conditions for a block exemption to be granted under EC law, and concludes that none of them is fulfilled by shipping cartels. Finally, it recommends that the block exemption is repealed and proposes some alternative scenarios and solutions for the adequate enforcement of antitrust law in the maritime sector. Shipping Conferences under EC Antitrust Law - the only study of Shipping Conferences - examines one of the great anomalies in world trade law.
Increasingly, international governmental networks and organisations make it necessary to master the legal principles of other jurisdictions. Since the advent of international criminal tribunals this need has fully reached criminal law. A large part of their work is based on comparative research. The legal systems which contribute most to this systemic discussion are common law and civil law, sometimes called continental law. So far this dialogue appears to have been dominated by the former. While there are many reasons for this, one stands out very clearly: Language. English has become the lingua franca of international legal research. The present book addresses this issue. Thomas Vormbaum is one of the foremost German legal historians and the book's original has become a cornerstone of research into the history of German criminal law beyond doctrinal expositions; it allows a look at the system's genesis, its ideological, political and cultural roots. In the field of comparative research, it is of the utmost importance to have an understanding of the law's provenance, in other words its historical DNA.
The Major Laws and Decrees of the Third Reich is a collection of all the principal laws and decrees brought in over the period of Nazi rule in Germany in the 1930s and 1940s. The book contains not only the full text in translation of the major legislation of the period, but also many of the much-neglected supplementary laws and decrees which often impacted on the laws themselves and which contextualise them and help us make sense of them today.
In addition to the full text of the laws, an introduction will deal with issues such as the role of law and the judiciary, how laws and decrees were formulated, mechanisms of consent and subversion of the established law. Over three chronological sections, divided into thematic parts, J.A.S. Grenville and Jeremy Noakes include laws which covered all areas of government, the economy, race and ideological indoctrination. Each part and section will have a commentary discussing issues such as the relationship between party and state, the rise of the party and the SS, and the politicisation of the legal system during the war.
Many of the laws included in this volume have never been translated into English before, and so together with the unique commentary and the contextualisation of the laws, the book is an essential reference work for all students of Nazi Germany.
The text that professors trust to get students thinking analytically about American government now includes new content on how race, gender, and group identity intersect with political behavior and institutions. And, leading scholars have contributed new Analyzing the Evidence features that engage students with the questions and methods that political students use themselves.The 2014 Election Update editions include results and analysis from the 2014 election results as well as updated discussions of other important political developments, such as Obama s executive orders on immigration and the new limits on the filibuster. In addition, many figures and tables have been updated with the latest data."
Originally published in 1987, John D. Leshy presents this scholarly study of the 1872 Mining Law as a legal treatise and history of mining in the West from the point of view of mineral exploration and production. This mining law governed the United States mining practice yet had never been changed. The Mining Law attempts to highlight the role of policy and government as well as the more obscure elements of the law which complicated mining practice in the eighties. This title will be of interest to students of Environmental Studies and policy makers.
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